Protection from arbitrary arrest or detention

Protection from arbitrary arrest or detention

Constitution of Bahamas

Protection from arbitrary arrest or detention.

19.- (1) No person shall be deprived of his personal liberty save as may be authorized by law in any of the following cases-

a) in execution of the sentence or order of a court, whether established for The Bahamas or some other country, in respect of a criminal offence of which he has been convicted or in consequence of his unfitness to plead to a criminal charge or in execution of the order of a court on the grounds of his contempt of that court or of another court or tribunal ;

b) in execution of the order of a court made in order to secure the fulfillment of any obligation imposed upon him by law;

c) for the purpose of bringing him before a court in execution of the order of a court ;

d) upon reasonable suspicion of his having committed, or of being about to commit, a criminal offence ;

e) in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of his education or welfare ;

f) for the purpose of preventing the spread of an infectious or contagious disease or in the case of a person who is, or is reasonably suspected to be, of unsound mind, addicted to drugs or alcohol, or a vagrant, for the purpose of his case or treatment of the protection of the community ;

g) for the purpose of preventing the unlawful entry of that person into The Bahamas or for the purpose of effecting the expulsion, extradition or other lawful removal from the Bahamas of that person or the taking of proceedings relating thereto ; and without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing, a law may, for the purposes of this sub-paragraph, provide that a person who is not a citizen of The Bahamas may be deprived of this liberty to such extent as may be necessary in the execution of a lawful order requiring that person to remain within a specified area within The Bahamas or prohibiting him from being within such an area.

(2) Any person who is arrested or detained shall be informed as soon as is reasonably practicable, in a language that he understands, of the reason for his arrest or detention and shall be permitted, at his own expense, to retain and instruct without delay a legal representative of his own choice and to hold private communication with him ; and in the case of a person who has not attained the age of eighteen years he shall also be afforded a reasonable opportunity for communication with his parent or guardian.

(3) Any person who is arrested or detained in such a case as is mentioned in sub-paragraph (1)(c) or (d) of this Article and who is not released shall be brought without undue delay before a court ; and if any person arrested or detained in such a case as is mentioned in the said sub-paragraph (1)(d) is not tried within a reasonable time he shall (without prejudice to any further proceedings that may be brought against him) be released either unconditionally or upon reasonably necessary to ensure that he appears at a later date for trial of for proceedings preliminary to trial.

(4) Any person who is unlawfully arrested or detained by any other persons hall be entitled to compensation therefor from that other person.

(5) Where a person is detained by virtue of such a law as is referred to in

Article 29 of this Constitution, the following provisions shall apply-

a) he shall, as soon as reasonably practicable and in any case not more than five days after the commencement of his detention, be furnished with a statement in writing, in a language that he understands, of the grounds upon which he is detained ;

b) not more than fourteen days after the commencement of his detention, a notification shall be published in the Gazette stating that he has been detained and giving particulars of the provisions of law under which his detention is authorized ;

c) he may from time to time request that his case be reviewed under sub-paragraph (d) of this paragraph but, where he has made such a request, no subsequent request shall be made before the expiration of three months from the making of the previous request ;

d) where a request is made under sub-paragraph (c) of this paragraph, the case shall, within one month of the making of the request, be reviewed by an independent and impartial tribunal established by law, presided over by the Chief Justice or another Justice of the Supreme Court appointed by him, and consisting of persons who are Justices of the Supreme Court or who are qualified to be appointed as Justices of the Supreme Court :

e) he shall be afforded reasonable facilities to consult and instruct, at his own expense, a legal representative of his own choice, and he and any such legal representative shall be permitted to make written or oral representations or both to the tribunal appointed for the review of his case.

(6) On any review by a tribunal in pursuance of paragraph (5) of this Article of the case of any detained person, the tribunal may make recommendations concerning the necessity or expediency of continuing his detention to the authority by whom it was ordered, but unless it is otherwise provided by law, that authority shall not be obliged to act in accordance with any such recommendations.

(7) When any person is detained by virtue of such a law as is referred to in

Article 29 of this Constitution the Prime Minister of a Minister authorized by him shall, not more than thirty days after the commencement of the detention and thereafter no more than thirty days after the making of the previous report, make a report to each House stating the number of persons detained as aforesaid and the number of cases in which the authority that ordered the detention has not acted in accordance with the recommendations of a tribunal appointed in pursuance of paragraph 85) of this Article :

provided that in reckoning any period of thirty days for the purposes of this paragraph no account shall be taken of any period during which parliament stands prorogued or dissolved.

Constitution of Bahamas


Chapter I - The Constitution


1. The State

2. The Constitution is supreme law

Chapter II - Citizenship


3. Persons who become citizens on 10th July 1973

4. Persons who become citizens on 9th July 1974

5. Persons entitled to be registered as citizens

6. Persons born in The Bahamas after 9th July 1973

7. Persons born The Bahamas after 9th July 1973 of non-citizen parents

8. Persons born outside The Bahamas after 9th July 1973

9. Further provisions for persons born outside The Bahamas after 9th July 1973

10. Marriage to citizens of The Bahamas

11. Deprivation of citizenship

12. Renunciation of citizenship

13. Power of Parliament

14. Interpretation

Chapter III - Protection Of Fundamental Rights And Freedoms Of The Individual


15. Fundamental rights and freedoms of the individual

16. Protection of right to life

17. Protection from inhuman treatment

18. Protection from slavery and forced labour

19. Protection from arbitrary arrest or detention

20. Provisions to secure protection of law

21. Protection for privacy of home and other property

22. Protection of freedom of conscience

23. Protection of freedom of expression

24. Protection of freedom of assembly and association

25. Protection of freedom of movement

26. Protection from discrimination on the grounds of race, etc.

27. Protection from deprivation of property

28. Enforcement of fundamental rights

29. Provisions for time of war or emergency

30. Saving of existing law

31. Interpretation

Chapter IV - The Governor-general


32. Establishment of office of Governor-General

33. Acting Governor-General

34. Deputy to Governor-General

35. Personal staff of Governor-General

36. Public Seal

37. Oaths to be taken by Governor-General

Chapter V - Parliament


Part 1 - Composition of Parliament


38. Establishment of Parliament

Part 2 - The Senate


39. Composition of Senate

40. Purpose of appointment of certain Senator

41. Qualifications for appointment as Senator

42. Disqualifications for appointments as Senator

43. Tenure of office of Senators

44. President and Vice-President

45. Determination of questions as to membership

Part 3 - House of Assembly


46. Composition of House of Assembly

47. Qualifications for membership of House of Assembly

48. Disqualifications for election as members of House of Assembly

49. Tenure of office of Members of House of Assembly

50. Speaker and Deputy Speaker

51. Determination of questions as to membership

Part 4 - Powers and Procedure of Parliament


52. Powers and Procedure of Parliament

53. Privileges of Parliament

54. Alteration of this Constitution

55. Regulation of procedure in Parliament

56. Presiding in the Senate and House of Assembly

57. Quorum

58. Voting

59. Introduction of Bills, etc

60. Restriction on powers of Senate as to Money Bills

61. Restriction on powers of Senate as to Bills other than Money Bills

62. Provisions relating to Articles 59, 60 and 61

63. Assent to Bills

64. Oath of allegiance

Part 5 - Summoning Prorogation and Dissolution


65. Sessions of Parliament

66. Prorogation and dissolution of Parliament

67. General election, bye-elections and appointment of Senators

Part 6 - Delimitation of Constituencies


68. Constituencies

69. Constituencies Commission

70. Procedure for review of constituencies

Chapter VI - The Executive


71. Executive Authority

72. The Cabinet

73. Appointment of Ministers

74. Tenure of office of Ministers

75. Performance of functions of Prime Minister during absence, illness or suspension

76. Temporary Ministers

77. Allocation of portfolios to Ministers

78. Functions of Attorney-General

79. Exercise of Governor-General's powers

80. Governor-General to be informed concerning matters of Government

81. Parliamentary Secretaries

82. Leader of the Opposition

83. Certain vacancies in office of Leader of the Opposition

84. Oaths to be taken by Ministers, etc

85. Leave of absence for Ministers, etc

86. Summoning of and presiding in Cabinet

87. Quorum

88. Permanent Secretaries

89. Constitution of offices, etc

90. Powers of pardon, etc

91. Advisory Committee on Prerogative of Mercy

92. Functions of Advisory Committee

Chapter VII - The Judicature


Part 1 - The Supreme Court


93. Establishment of Supreme Court

94. Appointment of Justices of Supreme Court

95. Acting Justices

96. Tenure of office of Justice of Supreme Court

97. Oaths to be taken by Justices of Supreme Court

Part 2 - Court of Appeal


98. Establishment of Court of Appeal

99. Justices of the Court of Appeal

100. Other arrangements for appeals

101. Acting Justices of Court of Appeal

102. Tenure of office of Justices of Appeal

103. Oaths to be taken by Justices of Appeal

Part 3 - Appeals to Court of Appeal and Her Majesty in Council


104. Appeals relating to fundamental rights and freedoms

105. Appeals to Her Majesty in Council in other cases

106. Interpretation of "Court of Appeal

Chapter VIII - The Public Service


Part 1 - The Public Service Commission


107. Establishment and composition of Public Officers

Part 2 - Appointments etc. of Public Officers


108. Appointments, etc. of public officers

109. Appointments of Permanent Secretaries and certain other public officers

110. Delegation of Governor-General's powers

111. Appointments, etc. of principal representatives of The Bahamas abroad

112. Appointments on transfer in respect of certain offices

113. Appointment of Secretary to the Cabinet

Part 3 - The Public Service Board of Appeal


114. Public Service Board of Appeal

115. Appeals in discipline cases

Part 4 - The Judicial and Legal Service Commission


116. Establishment and composition of the Judicial and Legal Service Commission

117. Appointments, etc. of judicial and legal officers

Part 5 - The Police Service Commission


118. Establishment and composition of the Police Service Commission

119. Appointment of Commissioner of Police and other officers of the Police Force

120. Removal of the Commissioner and Deputy Commissioner of Police

121. Removal and discipline of members of the Force

Part 6 - Pensions


122. Protection of pension rights

123. Grant and withholding of pensions, etc

124. Appeals in respect of certain decisions affecting pensions benefits

Part 7 - Miscellaneous


125. Procedure of Commissions

126. Removal from office of certain persons

127. Public Service

Chapter IX - Finance


128. Consolidated Fund

129. Estimates

130. Authority for public expenditure

131. Withdrawal of money from the Consolidated Fund

132. Withdrawal of money in advance of Appropriation Act

133. Contingencies Fund

134. Public Debt

135. Remuneration of Governor-General and certain other officers

136. Establishment of office and functions of Auditor-General

Chapter X - Interpretation


137. Interpretation

Constitution Rights Freedoms 2022
Abortion is a matter of 'freedom' for Biden and Democrats ABC News


Opinion: Take time to appreciate the rights we enjoy from U.S. Constitution Burlington Hawk Eye
A Proclamation on Constitution Day and Citizenship Day, and Constitution Week, 2022 The White House
EDITORIAL: Celebrating the Constitution and all its freedoms Yahoo News
Educators Celebrate Constitution Day, Release Resources to Help Teach Important Civics Lessons American Federation of Teachers


States Need Constitutional Amendments to Protect Abortion From Right-Wing Judges Truthout
Freedom of religion and the rights of locked inmates Jamaica Gleaner