Economic Principles

Economic Principles

- Constitution of Egypt

Chapter 3: Economic Principles

Article 14: The National economy

The national economy aims to achieve a comprehensive, sustainable developmentplan, improve living standards, achieve prosperity, eliminate poverty andunemployment, increase work opportunities, production and gross national product.

The development plan works to establish social justice and cooperation, to ensureequitable distribution, to protect consumer rights, and to safeguard the rights of workers. The development plan works towards ensuring that capital and labor sharethe burden of development costs, and the equitable distribution of revenue.

Wages are linked to production, the income gap shall be bridged, a minimum wagethat guarantees a decent standard of living for all citizens shall be established, and amaximum wage in civil service positions is established with exceptions regulated bylaw.

Article 15: Agriculture

Agriculture is an essential asset of the national economy. The state commits toprotecting and increasing farmland, and works to develop crop and plant varieties, todevelop and protect animal breeds and fisheries, to achieve food security, to providethe requirements of agricultural production, its good management and marketing,and support agricultural industries.

The law organizes the use of state land, in such a way as to achieve social justice, andprotect farmers and agricultural labour from exploitation.

Article 16: Development of the countryside and of thedesert

The state is committed to the development of the countryside and the desert, andworks to raise the standard of living of farmers and inhabitants of the desert.

Article 17: Industry

Industry is an essential component of the national economy. The state protectsstrategic industries, support industrial development, and ensures the nationaladoption of new technologies and their implementation.
The state fosters small and handicraft industries.

Article 18: Natural resources and the disposition of stateproperty

The state’s natural resources belong to the people, who have a right to theirrevenues. The state commits to preserving such resources, to their soundexploitation, and to take into consideration the rights of future generations.

It is prohibited to dispose of state property, or to grant the right to privilege toexploit such property, or to grant a concession to a public utility, except as permittedby law.

All capital that does not have an owner belongs to the state.

Article 19: The Nile River and water resources

The Nile River and water resources are a national wealth. The state is committed toconserving and developing them, and preventing abuse. The use of such resources isorganized by law.

Article 20: The protection of coasts, seas and waterways

The state commits to protecting its coasts, seas, waterways and lakes, to maintainingmonuments and nature reserves, and to removing any encroachments.

Article 21: The ownership of property

The state guarantees and protects the legitimate ownership of all kinds of public,cooperative and private property and endowments, in accordance with what the laworganises.

Article 22: The inviolability of public funds

Public funds are inviolable and the state and society have a national duty tosafeguard them.

Article 23: Cooperatives

The state sponsors and supports cooperatives in all forms and guarantees theirindependence.

Article 24: Private property

Private property is protected and has a function in the service of the nationaleconomy without deviation or monopoly. The right to inherit property is guaranteed.Private property may not be sequestrated except in cases specified by law, and witha court order. Ownership of property may not be confiscated except for the publicgood and with just compensation paid in advance.

The foregoing is organized by law.

Article 25: Charitable endowments

The state is committed to reviving and encouraging the system of charitableendowments.
The law organizes endowments, the manner in which they are established, themanagement of its finances, their investments and the distribution of proceeds tothe beneficiaries, according to the terms of the trustee.

Article 26: Taxation

Social justice is the foundation of taxation and other public finance duties.
ublic taxes cannot be established, modified or cancelled except by law. There canbe no exemptions except in cases prescribed by law. It is prohibited to requireanyone to pay additional taxes or fees except within the limits of the law.

Article 27: Workers’ share in management

Workers will share in the management and profits of enterprises. They arecommitted to the development of production, to protecting its means and to theimplementation of its strategy in their production units, in accordance with the law.

Workers’ representatives may constitute up to 50 percent of the members of theboards of directors of public sector units. The law guarantees that small farmers andsmall craftsmen’s representatives should constitute no less than 80 percent of theboards of directors of agricultural and industrial cooperatives.

Article 28: Savings

Saving is encouraged by the state. The state safeguards savings, as well as insuranceand pension funds.

This is organized by law.

Article 29: Nationalisation

Nationalization is allowed except for the public interest, based on a law and againstfair compensation.

Article 30: Confiscation of property

Public confiscation of property is prohibited.

Private confiscation is prohibited except based on a court judgment.

State and Society
Political Principles
Social and Ethical Principles
Economic Principles
Rights and Freedoms
Personal Rights
Moral and Political Rights
Economic and Social Rights
Guarantees for the Protection of Rights and Freedoms
Public Authorities
Legislative Authority
Common provisions
Council of Representatives
Shura Council
Executive Authority
Judicial Authority
General Provisions
Judiciary and Public Prosecution
State Council
Supreme Constitutional Court
Judicial Bodies
The legal profession
The experts
Local Administration
Local Administrative Division of the State
Local Councils
National Security and Defense
National Security Council
Armed Forces
National Defense Council
Military Judiciary
Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies
Regulatory Agencies
National Anti Corruption Commission
Central Auditing Organization
Central Bank
Economic and Social Council
National Electoral Commission
Independent bodies
Supreme Authority for Endowment Affairs
Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation
National Council for Education and Scientific Research
Independent Press and Media Organizations
Final And Transitional Provisions
Amendments to the Constitution
Transitional Provisions
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