Personal Rights

Personal Rights

Personal Rights

Personal Rights

- Constitution of Egypt

Chapter 1: Personal rights

Article 31: Dignity and the prohibition against insults

Dignity is the right of every human being. The state and society guarantee respectfor dignity and its protection.

Insulting or showing contempt toward any human being is prohibited.

Article 32: Nationality

Egyptian nationality is a right. It is organized by law.

Article 33: Equality in public rights and duties

All citizens are equal before the law. They have equal public rights and duties. Therecan be no discrimination between them in that regard.

Article 34: Personal freedom

Personal freedom is a natural right. It is safeguarded and inviolable.

Article 35: Due process

Except in cases of flagrante delicto, no person may be arrested, searched, detained,prevented from free movement or prevented from exercising his freedoms exceptunder a justified court order that will require an investigation.

Any person whose freedom has been restricted for these reasons must be informedof the reasons in writing within 12 hours, and be presented to the investigatingauthority within 24 hours from the time in which his freedom was restricted. He canonly be interrogated in the presence of his lawyer. He will be provided with a lawyer when needed.

All persons whose freedoms have been restricted, and others, have the right ofappeal to the courts against the measure of arrest. The matter must be decidedwithin a week. If the matter is not decided within a week, release becomesimperative.

The law organizes the rules for temporary detention, its duration and its causes, andthe cases in which an individual is entitled to compensation, whether for temporarydetention or for a sentence carried out that a court final ruling has revoked.

Article 36: Treatment during arrest or detention

Any person arrested, detained or whose freedom is restricted in any way, is treatedin a manner preserving his dignity. He may not be tortured, nor may he be compelled,nor may he be physically or morally harmed.

Individuals can only be detained or arrested in places that are humanely andhygienically suitable, and subject to judicial supervision.

The violation of any of the foregoing is an offense punishable by law.

Any statement proved to have been made by a person under any of theaforementioned forms of duress, or pursuant to a threat, is considered invalid andcannot be relied upon.

Article 37: Prison

Prison is a place of discipline, correction and reform. It is subject to judicialsupervision. Anything that violates human dignity or a person's health is prohibited.

The state is responsible for the rehabilitation of convicts and facilitating for them adignified life after their release.

Article 38: Sanctity of correspondence

The private life of citizens is inviolable. Its secrecy is guaranteed. Postalcorrespondence, wires, electronic correspondence, telephone calls and other meansof communication may not be confiscated.

They cannot be monitored except for a limited period of time and in situations thatare set out by law, and based on a justified judicial warrant.

Article 39: The inviolability of homes

Homes are inviolable. With the exception of cases of immediate danger and distress,they may not be entered, searched or monitored, except in cases defined by law, andby a justified judicial warrant which specifies the place, timing and purpose. Those ina home are alerted before the home is entered or searched.

Article 40: Right to safety

ll residents have a right to a safe life which is guaranteed by the state. The lawprotects the individual against criminal phenomena.

Article 41: Inviolability of the human body

The human body is inviolable, and the trafficking of human organs prohibited. Noperson may be subjected to any medical or scientific experiment without free,documented consent, and in accordance with the established foundations of medicalscience, and in the manner organized by law.

Article 42: Freedom of movement

Freedom of movement, residence and immigration is guaranteed.

No citizen may be deported from or prevented from returning to the country.

No citizen may be prevented from leaving the country, nor placed under housearrest, except by virtue of a justified judicial warrant, and for a limited period of time.

State and Society
Political Principles
Social and Ethical Principles
Economic Principles
Rights and Freedoms
Personal Rights
Moral and Political Rights
Economic and Social Rights
Guarantees for the Protection of Rights and Freedoms
Public Authorities
Legislative Authority
Common provisions
Council of Representatives
Shura Council
Executive Authority
Judicial Authority
General Provisions
Judiciary and Public Prosecution
State Council
Supreme Constitutional Court
Judicial Bodies
The legal profession
The experts
Local Administration
Local Administrative Division of the State
Local Councils
National Security and Defense
National Security Council
Armed Forces
National Defense Council
Military Judiciary
Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies
Regulatory Agencies
National Anti Corruption Commission
Central Auditing Organization
Central Bank
Economic and Social Council
National Electoral Commission
Independent bodies
Supreme Authority for Endowment Affairs
Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation
National Council for Education and Scientific Research
Independent Press and Media Organizations
Final And Transitional Provisions
Amendments to the Constitution
Transitional Provisions
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