Political principles

Political principles

Political principles

Political principles

- Constitution of Egypt

Chapter 1: Political principles

Article 1

Nature of the Republic, and of the Egyptian people

The Arab Republic of Egypt is an independent sovereign state, united and indivisible,and its system is democratic. The Egyptian people are part of the Arab and Islamicnations, are proud of belonging to the Nile Valley, to the African continent and toAsia. The Egyptian people contribute to human civilization.

Article 2: Religion, language and source of legislation

Islam is the religion of the state and Arabic is its official language. The principles ofIslamic Sharia are the principal source of legislation.

Article 3: Christian and Jewish religious affairs

The principles of Christian and Jewish laws are the main source of legislation forfollowers of Christianity and Judaism in matters pertaining to personal status,religious affairs and nomination of spiritual leaders.

Article 4: Al-Azhar

Al-Azhar is an encompassing independent Islamic institution, with exclusivecompetence over its own affairs. It is responsible for preaching Islam, theology andthe Arabic language in Egypt and throughout the world. Al-Azhar’s Council of SeniorScholars is to be consulted in matters relating to Islamic Sharia.

The state ensures sufficient funds for Al-Azhar to achieve its objectives.

Article 5: Sovereignty

Sovereignty belongs to the people. The people exercise and protect sovereignty, andsafeguard their national unity. The people are the source of power. This is asprovided in this Constitution.

Article 6: Democratic principles

The political system is based on the principles of democracy and consultation,citizenship (under which all citizens are equal in rights and public duties), politicaland multi-party pluralism, the peaceful transfer of power, the separation and balanceof powers, the rule of law, and respect for human rights and freedoms. All of theforegoing is as provided in the Constitution.

It is prohibited to form a political party that discriminates between citizens, whetheron the basis of gender, origin or religion.

Article 7: The duty to safeguard national security andconscription

Safeguarding national security, defending the motherland and protecting its soil is anhonour and a sacred duty. Conscription is obligatory and is organized by law.

State and Society
Political Principles
Social and Ethical Principles
Economic Principles
Rights and Freedoms
Personal Rights
Moral and Political Rights
Economic and Social Rights
Guarantees for the Protection of Rights and Freedoms
Public Authorities
Legislative Authority
Common provisions
Council of Representatives
Shura Council
Executive Authority
Judicial Authority
General Provisions
Judiciary and Public Prosecution
State Council
Supreme Constitutional Court
Judicial Bodies
The legal profession
The experts
Local Administration
Local Administrative Division of the State
Local Councils
National Security and Defense
National Security Council
Armed Forces
National Defense Council
Military Judiciary
Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies
Regulatory Agencies
National Anti Corruption Commission
Central Auditing Organization
Central Bank
Economic and Social Council
National Electoral Commission
Independent bodies
Supreme Authority for Endowment Affairs
Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation
National Council for Education and Scientific Research
Independent Press and Media Organizations
Final And Transitional Provisions
Amendments to the Constitution
Transitional Provisions
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