Constitution of Germany

Constitution of Germany

- Laws and the constitution
Constitution of Germany - The Constitution and Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany

I. Basic Rights

Article 1: Human dignity - Human rights - Legally binding force of basic rights
Article 2: Personal freedoms
Article 3: Equality before the law
Article 4: Freedom of faith and conscience
Article 5: Freedom of expression, arts and sciences
Article 6: Marriage - Family - Children
Article 7: School system
Article 8: Freedom of assembly
Article 9: Freedom of association
Article 10: Privacy of correspondence, posts and telecommunications
Article 11: Freedom of movement
Article 12: Occupational freedom
Article 12a: Compulsory military and alternative civilian service
Article 13: Inviolability of the home
Article 14: Property - Inheritance - Expropriation
Article 15: Socialisation
Article 16: Citizenship - Extradition
Article 16a: Right of asylum
Article 17: Right of petition
Article 17a: Restriction of basic rights in specific instances
Article 18: Forfeiture of basic rights
Article 19: Restriction of basic rights - Legal remedies

II. The Federation and the Länder

Article 20: Constitutional principles - Right of resistance
Article 20a: Protection of the natural foundations of life and animals
Article 21: Political parties
Article 22: Federal capital - Federal flag
Article 23: European Union - Protection of basic rights - Principle of subsidiarity
Article 24: Transfer of sovereign powers - System of collective security
Article 25: Primacy of international law
Article 26: Securing international peace
Article 27: Merchant fleet
Article 28: Land constitutions - Autonomy of municipalities
Article 29: New delimitation of the federal territory
Article 30: Sovereign powers of the Länder
Article 31: Supremacy of federal law
Article 32: Foreign relations
Article 33: Equal citizenship - Public service
Article 34: Liability for violation of official duty
Article 35: Legal and administrative assistance and assistance during disasters
Article 36: Personnel of federal authorities
Article 37: Federal execution

III. The Bundestag

Article 38: Elections
Article 39: Electoral term - Convening
Article 40: Presidency - Rules of procedure
Article 41: Scrutiny of elections
Article 42: Public sittings - Majority decisions
Article 43: Right to require presence, right of access and right to be heard
Article 44: Committees of inquiry
Article 45: Committee on the European Union
Article 45a: Committees on Foreign Affairs and Defence
Article 45b: Parliamentary Commissioner for the Armed Forces
Article 45c: Petitions Committee
Article 45d: Parliamentary Control Panel
Article 46: Immunities of Members
Article 47: Right of refusal to give evidence
Article 48: Candidature - Protection of membership - Remuneration

IV. The Bundesrat

Article 50: Functions
Article 51: Composition - Weighted voting
Article 52: President - Decisions - Rules of procedure
Article 53: Attendance of members of the Federal Government

IVa: The Joint Committee

Article 53a: Composition - Rules of procedure

V. The Federal President

Article 54: Election - Term of office
Article 55: Incompatibilities
Article 56: Oath of office
Article 57: Substitution
Article 58: Countersignature
Article 59: Representation of the Federation for the purposes of international law
Article 60: Appointment of civil servants - Pardon - Immunity
Article 61: Impeachment before the Federal Constitutional Court

VI. The Federal Government

Article 62: Composition
Article 63: Election of the Federal Chancellor
Article 64: Appointment and dismissal of Federal Ministers - Oath of office
Article 65: Power to determine policy guidelines - Department and collegiate responsibility
Article 65a: Command of the Armed Forces
Article 66: Incompatibilities
Article 67: Vote of no confidence
Article 68: Vote of confidence
Article 69: Deputy Federal Chancellor - Term of office

VII. Federal Legislation and Legislative Procedures

Article 70: Division of powers between the Federation and the Länder
Article 71: Exclusive legislative power of the Federation
Article 72: Concurrent legislative powers
Article 73: Matters under exclusive legislative power of the Federation
Article 74: Matters under concurrent legislative powers
Article 76: Bills
Article 77: Legislative procedure - Mediation Committee
Article 78: Passage of federal laws
Article 79: Amendment of the Basic Law
Article 80: Issuance of statutory instruments
Article 80a: State of tension
Article 81: Legislative emergency
Article 82: Certification - Promulgation - Entry into force

VIII. The Execution of Federal Laws and the Federal Administration

Article 83: Execution by the Länder
Article 84: Länder administration - Federal oversight
Article 85: Execution by the Länder on federal commission
Article 86: Federal administration
Article 87: Matters
Article 87a: Armed Forces
Article 87b: Federal Defence Administrationn
Article 87c: Production and utilisation of nuclear energy
Article 87d: Air transport administration
Article 87e: Rail transport administration
Article 87f: Posts and telecommunications
Article 88: The Federal Bank - The European Central Bank
Article 89: Federal waterways - Administration of waterways
Article 90: Federal roads and motorways
Article 91: Internal emergency

VIIIa: Joint Tasks

Article 91a: Joint tasks - Responsibility for expenditure
Article 91b: Education programmes and promotion of research
Article 91c: Information technology systems
Article 91d: Comparison of performance
Article 91e: Cooperation in respect of basic support for persons seeking employment

IX. The Judiciary

Article 92: Court organisation
Article 93: Jurisdiction of the Federal Constitutional Court
Article 94: Composition of the Federal Constitutional Court
Article 95: Supreme federal courts
Article 96: Other federal courts
Article 97: Judicial independence
Article 98: Legal status of judges - Impeachment
Article 99: Constitutional disputes within a Land
Article 100: Concrete judicial review
Article 101: Ban on extraordinary courts
Article 102: Abolition of capital punishment
Article 103: Fair trial
Article 104: Deprivation of liberty

X. Finance

Article 104a: Apportionment of expenditures - Financial system - Liability
Article 104b: Financial assistance for investments
Article 104c: Financial assistance for investments in municipal education infrastructure
Article 104d: Financial assistance for investments in social housing
Article 105: Distribution of powers regarding tax laws
Article 106: Apportionment of tax revenue and yield of fiscal monopolies
Article 106a: Federal grants for local mass transit
Article 106b: Länder share of motor vehicle tax
Article 107: Distribution of tax revenue - Financial equalisation among the Länder -Supplementary grants
Article 108: Financial administration of the Federation and the Länder - Financial courts
Article 109: Budget management in the Federation and the Länder
Article 109a: Budgetary emergencies
Article 110: Federal budget
Article 111: Interim budget management
Article 112: Extrabudgetary expenditures
Article 113: Increase of expenditures
Article 114: Submission and auditing of accounts
Article 115: Limits of borrowing

Xa. State of Defence

Article 115a: Declaration of state of defence
Article 115b: Power of command of the Federal Chancellor
Article 115c: Extension of the legislative powers of the Federation
Article 115d: Urgent bills
Article 115e: Joint Committee
Article 115f: Use of Federal Border Police - Extended powers of instruction
Article 115g: Federal Constitutional Court
Article 115h: Expiry of electoral terms and terms of office
Article 115i: Powers of the Land governments
Article 115k: Rank and duration of emergency provisions
Article 115l: Repeal of emergency measures - Conclusion of peace

XI. Transitional and Concluding Provisions

Article 116: Definition of "German" - Restoration of citizenship
Article 117: Suspended entry into force of two basic rights
Article 118: New delimitation of Baden and Württemberg
Article 118a: New delimitation of Berlin and Brandenburg
Article 119: Refugees and expellees
Article 120: Occupation costs - Burdens resulting from the war
Article 120a: Equalisation of burdens
Article 121: Definition of "majority of the members"
Article 122: Date of transmission of legislative powers
Article 123: Continued applicability of pre-existing law
Article 124: Continued applicability of law within the scope of exclusive legislative power
Article 125: Continued applicability of law within the scope of concurrent legislative power
Article 125a: Continued applicability of federal law - Replacement by Land law
Article 125b: Continued applicability of framework laws - Deviation power of the Länder
Article 125c: Continued applicability of law within the scope of joint tasks
Article 126: Determination about continued applicability of law as federal law
Article 127: Extension of law to the French zone and to Berlin
Article 128: Continued authority to issue instructions
Article 129: Continued authority to issue legal acts
Article 130: Transfer of existing administrative institutions
Article 131: Persons formerly in the public service
Article 132: Retirement of civil servants
Article 133: Succession to the Administration of the Combined Economic Area
Article 134: Succession to Reich assets
Article 135: Assets in case of territorial changes between the Länder
Article 135a: Old debts
Article 136: First convening of the Bundesrat
Article 137: Right of state employees to stand for election
Article 138: South German notaries
Article 139: Continued applicability of denazification provisions
Article 140: Law of religious denominations
Article 141: "Bremen Clause"
Article 142: Reservation in favour of basic rights in Land constitutions
Article 143: Duration of deviations from the Basic Law
Article 143a: Exclusive legislative power concerning federal railways
Article 143b: Privatisation of the Deutsche Bundespost
Article 143c: Compensation for the cessation of joint tasks
Article 143d: Transitional provisions relating to consolidation assistance
Article 143e: Federal motorways, transformation of commissioned administration
Article 143f: Financial relations within the federal system of government
Article 143g: Continued applicability of Article 107
Article 144: Ratification of the Basic Law Berlin
Article 145: Entry into force of the Basic Law
Article 146: Duration of the Basic Law

Basic Law of Germany

Basic Rights
Federation and the Lander
Joint Committee
Composition Rules of procedure
Federal President
Federal Government
Federal Legislation
Execution of Federal Laws
Joint Tasks
State of Defence
Transitional and Concluding Provisions
Constitution Germany 2022

German citizens sue government for right to breathe clean air EURACTIV
German citizens sue government as air pollution hits health ClientEarth
German government faces legal action over air pollution POLITICO Europe
German city dwellers sue government over air pollution theSundaily

Kuwait’s Constitutional Court Rejects Petition on 'Offender Law” Asharq Al-awsat - English
German far-right MPs to visit Russian-occupied eastern Ukraine EURACTIV
The politics of Germany's Zeitenwende Geopolitical Intelligence Services AG