Finance

Finance

- Constitution of Germany

X. Finance

Article 104a[Apportionment of expenditures – Financial system – Liability]

(1) The Federation and the Länder shall separately finance the expenditures resulting from the discharge of their respective responsibilities insofar as this Basic Law does not otherwise provide.

(2) Where the Länder act on federal commission, the Feder­ation shall finance the resulting expenditures.

(3) Federal laws providing for money grants to be administered by the Länder may provide that the Federation shall pay for such grants wholly or in part. If any such law provides that the Federation shall finance one half or more of the expenditure, it shall be executed by the Länder on federal commission.

(4) Federal laws that oblige the Länder to provide money grants, benefits in kind or comparable services to third parties and which are executed by the Länder in their own right or according to the second sentence of paragraph (3) on commission of the Federation shall require the consent of the Bundesrat if the expenditure resulting therefrom is to be borne by the Länder.

(5) The Federation and the Länder shall finance the adminis­trative expenditures incurred by their respective authorities and shall be responsible to one another for ensuring proper administration. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.

(6) In accordance with the internal allocation of competencies and responsibilities, the Federation and the Länder shall bear the costs entailed by a violation of obligations incum­bent on Germany under supranational or international law. In cases of financial corrections by the European Union with effect transcending one specific Land, the Federation and the Länder shall bear such costs at a ratio of 15 to 85. In such cases, the Länder as a whole shall be responsible in solidarity for 35 per cent of the total burden according to a general formula; 50 per cent of the total burden shall be borne by those Länder which have caused the encum­brance, adjusted to the size of the amount of the financial means received. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.


Article 104b[Financial assistance for investments]

(1) To the extent that this Basic Law confers on it the power to legislate, the Federation may grant the Länder financial assistance for particularly important investments by the Länder and municipalities (associations of municipalities) which are necessary to:

1. avert a disturbance of the overall economic equilibri­um,

2. equalise differing economic capacities within the fed­eral territory, or

3. promote economic growth. By way of derogation from the first sentence, the Federa­tion may grant financial assistance even outside its field of legislative powers in cases of natural disasters or excep­tional emergency situations beyond governmental control and substantially harmful to the state’s financial capacity.

(2) Details, especially with respect to the kinds of invest­ments to be promoted, shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat or by an executive agreement based on the Federal Budget Act. The federal law or executive agreement may contain provisions on the shaping of the respective Land programmes for the use of the financial assistance. The criteria for the shaping of the Land programmes shall be specified in agreement with the affected Länder. To ensure that the funds are used for their intended purpose, the Federal Government may require the submission of reports and documents and conduct surveys of any authorities. The funds from the Federation shall be provided in addition to funds belonging to the Länder. The duration of the grants shall be limited, and the grants must be reviewed at regular intervals with respect to the manner in which they are used. The financial assistance must be designed with descending annual contributions.

(3) Upon request, the Bundestag, the Federal Government and the Bundesrat shall be informed about the implementation of such measures and the improvements reached.


Article 104c[Financial assistance for investments in municipal education infrastructure]

The Federation may grant the Länder financial assistance for investments of significance to the nation as a whole, and for special limited-term expenditures on the part of the Länder and municipalities (associations of municipali­ties) directly connected with such investments to improve the efficiency of municipal education infrastructure. The first three sentences and the fifth and sixth sentences of paragraph (2), as well as paragraph (3) of Article 104b, shall apply, mutatis mutandis. To ensure that the funds are used for their intended purpose, the Federal Government may require the submission of reports and, where circumstances so warrant, documents.


Article 104d[Financial assistance for investments in social housing]

The Federation may grant the Länder financial assistance for investments of significance to the nation as a whole on the part of the Länder and municipalities (associations of municipalities) in social housing. The first five sentences of paragraph (2), as well as paragraph (3) of Article 104b, shall apply, mutatis mutandis.


Article 105[Distribution of powers regarding tax laws]

(1) The Federation shall have exclusive power to legislate with respect to customs duties and fiscal monopolies.

(2) The Federation shall have concurrent power to legislate with respect to all other taxes the revenue from which accrues to it wholly or in part or as to which the conditions provided for in paragraph (2) of Article 72 apply.

(2a) The Länder shall have power to legislate with regard to local taxes on consumption and expenditures so long and insofar as such taxes are not substantially similar to taxes regulated by federal law. They are empowered to determine the rate of the tax on acquisition of real estate.

(3) Federal laws relating to taxes the revenue from which accrues wholly or in part to the Länder or to municipalities (associations of municipalities) shall require the consent of the Bundesrat.


Article 106 [Apportionmentoftaxrevenueandyieldoffiscalmonopolies]

(1) The yield of fiscal monopolies and the revenue from the following taxes shall accrue to the Federation:

1. customs duties;

2. taxes on consumption insofar as they do not accrue to the Länder pursuant to paragraph (2), or jointly to the Federation and the Länder in accordance with paragraph (3) or to municipalities in accordance with paragraph (6) of this Article;

3. the road freight tax, motor vehicle tax, and other taxes on transactions related to motorised vehicles;

4. the taxes on capital transactions, insurance and bills of exchange;

5. non-recurring levies on property and equalisation of burdens levies;

6. income and corporation surtaxes;

7. levies imposed within the framework of the European Communities.

(2) Revenue from the following taxes shall accrue to the Länder:

1. the property tax;

2. the inheritance tax;

3. the motor vehicle tax;

4. such taxes on transactions as do not accrue to the Federa­tion pursuant to paragraph (1) or jointly to the Federation and the Länder pursuant to paragraph (3) of this Article;

5. the beer tax;

6. the tax on gambling establishments.

(3) Revenue from income taxes, corporation taxes and turnover taxes shall accrue jointly to the Federation and the Länder (joint taxes) to the extent that the revenue from the income tax and the turnover tax is not allocated to municipalities pursuant to paragraphs (5) and (5a) of this Article. The Federation and the Länder shall share equally the revenues from income taxes and corporation taxes. The respective shares of the Federation and the Länder in the revenue from the turnover tax shall be determined by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. Such determination shall be based on the following principles:

1. The Federation and the Länder shall have an equal claim against current revenues to cover their necessary expenditures. The extent of such expenditures shall be determined with due regard to multi-year financial planning.

2. The financial requirements of the Federation and of the Länder shall be coordinated in such a way as to establish a fair balance, avoid excessive burdens on taxpayers and ensure uniformity of living standards throughout the federal territory. In determining the respective shares of the Federation and the Länder in the revenue from the turnover tax, reductions in revenue incurred by the Länder from 1 January 1996 because of the provisions made with respect to children in the income tax law shall also be taken into account. Details shall be regulated by the federal law enacted pursuant to the third sentence of this paragraph.

(4) The respective shares of the Federation and the Länder in the revenue from the turnover tax shall be apportioned anew whenever the ratio of revenues to expenditures of the Federation becomes substantially different from that of the Länder; reductions in revenue that are taken into account in determining the respective shares of revenue from the turnover tax under the fifth sentence of paragraph (3) of this Article shall not be considered in this regard. If a federal law imposes additional expenditures on or withdraws revenue from the Länder, the additional burden may be compensated for by federal grants pursuant to a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat, provided the additional burden is limited to a short period of time. This law shall establish the principles for calculating such grants and distributing them among the Länder.

(5) A share of the revenue from the income tax shall accrue to the municipalities, to be passed on by the Länder to their municipalities on the basis of the income taxes paid by their inhabitants. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. This law may provide that municipalities may establish supplementary or reduced rates with respect to their share of the tax.

(5a) From and after 1 January 1998, a share of the revenue from the turnover tax shall accrue to the municipalities. It shall be passed on by the Länder to their municipalities on the basis of a formula reflecting geographical and economic factors. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.

(6) Revenue from taxes on real property and trades shall accrue to the municipalities; revenue from local taxes on consumption and expenditures shall accrue to the munic­ipalities or, as may be provided for by Land legislation, to associations of municipalities. Municipalities shall be authorised to establish the rates at which taxes on real property and trades are levied, within the framework of the laws. If there are no municipalities in a Land, revenue from taxes on real property and trades as well as from local taxes on consumption and expenditures shall accrue to the Land. The Federation and the Länder may participate, by virtue of an apportionment, in the revenue from the tax on trades. Details regarding such apportionment shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. In accordance with Land legislation, taxes on real property and trades as well as the municipalities’ share of revenue from the income tax and the turnover tax may be taken as a basis for calculating the amount of apportionment.

(7) An overall percentage of the Land share of total revenue from joint taxes, to be determined by Land legislation, shall accrue to the municipalities or associations of municipal­ities. In all other respects Land legislation shall determine whether and to what extent revenue from Land taxes shall accrue to municipalities (associations of municipalities).

(8) If in individual Länder or municipalities (associations of municipalities) the Federation requires special facilities to be established that directly result in an increase of expendi­ture or in reductions in revenue (special burden) to these Länder or municipalities (associations of municipalities), the Federation shall grant the necessary compensation if and insofar as the Länder or municipalities (associations of municipalities) cannot reasonably be expected to bear the burden. In granting such compensation, due account shall be taken of indemnities paid by third parties and financial benefits accruing to these Länder or municipalities (associ­ations of municipalities) as a result of the establishment of such facilities.

(9) For the purpose of this Article, revenues and expenditures of municipalities (associations of municipalities) shall also be deemed to be revenues and expenditures of the Länder.


Article 106a[Federal grants for local public transport]

Beginning on 1 January 1996 the Länder shall be entitled to an allocation of federal tax revenues for purposes of local public transport. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. Allocations made pursuant to the first sentence of this Article shall not be taken into account in determining the financial capacity of a Land under paragraph (2) of Article 107.

Article 106b[Länder share of motor vehicle tax]

As of 1 July 2009, following the transfer of the motor vehicle tax to the Federation, the Länder shall be entitled to a sum from the tax revenue of the Federation. Details shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.

Article 107 [Distribution of tax revenue – Financial equalisation among the Länder – Supplementary grants]

(1) Revenue from Land taxes and the Land share of revenue from income and corporation taxes shall accrue to the individual Länder to the extent that such taxes are collected by finance authorities within their respective territories (local revenue). Details regarding the delimitation as well as the manner and scope of allotment of local revenue from corporation and wage taxes shall be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. This law may also provide for the delimitation and allotment of local revenue from other taxes. The Land share of revenue from the turnover tax shall accrue to the individual Länder on a per capita basis, unless other­wise provided in paragraph (2) of this Article.

(2) A federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat shall ensure a reasonable equalisation of the disparate financial capacities of the Länder, with due regard for the financial capacities and needs of municipalities (associations of municipalities). To this end, additions to and deductions from the financial capacity of the respective Länder shall be regulated in the allotment of their shares of revenue from the turnover tax. The conditions for granting additions and imposing reductions as well as the criteria governing the amount of these additions and deductions shall be specified in the law. For the purpose of measuring financial capacity, it shall be permissible to consider only part of the revenue from mining royalties. The law may also provide for grants to be made by the Federation to financially weak Länder from its own funds to assist them in meeting their general financial needs (supplementary grants). Irrespective of the criteria specified in the first to the third sentence of this paragraph, grants may also be made to such financially weak Länder whose municipalities (associations of municipali­ties) have a particularly low capacity to generate tax revenue (municipal tax-base grants) and, in addition, to such finan­cially weak Länder whose shares of the support funds under Article 91b are lower than their per capita shares.


Article 108[Financial administration of the Federation and the Länder – Financial courts]

(1) Customs duties, fiscal monopolies, taxes on consumption regulated by a federal law, including the turnover tax on imports, the motor vehicle tax and other transaction taxes related to motorised vehicles as from 1 July 2009 and charges imposed within the framework of the European Communities shall be administered by federal finance authorities. The organisation of these authorities shall be regulated by a federal law. Inasmuch as intermediate authorities have been established, their heads shall be appointed in consultation with the Land governments.

(2) All other taxes shall be administered by the financial au­thorities of the Länder. The organisation of these author­ities and the uniform training of their civil servants may be regulated by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat. Inasmuch as intermediate authorities have been established, their heads shall be appointed in agreement with the Federal Government.

(3) Where taxes accruing wholly or in part to the Federation are administered by revenue authorities of the Länder, those authorities shall act on federal commission. Paragraphs (3) and (4) of Article 85 shall apply, the Federal Minister of Finance acting in place of the Federal Government.

(4) Where and to the extent that execution of the tax laws will be substantially facilitated or improved thereby, a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat may provide for collaboration between federal and Land revenue authori­ties in matters of tax administration, for the administration of taxes enumerated in paragraph (1) of this Article by revenue authorities of the Länder or for the administration of other taxes by federal revenue authorities. The functions of Land revenue authorities in the administration of taxes whose revenue accrues exclusively to municipalities (asso­ciations of municipalities) may be delegated by the Länder to municipalities (associations of municipalities) wholly or in part. The federal law referred to in the first sentence of this paragraph may, with regard to collaboration between the Federation and Länder, provide that, with the consent of a majority specified in the law, rules for the execution of tax laws will become binding for all Länder.

(4a) A federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat may provide, in the case of the administration of taxes enumerated in paragraph (2), for collaboration between Land revenue authorities and for an inter-Land transfer of competence to Land revenue authorities of one or more Länder by agreement with the Länder concerned where and to the extent that execution of the tax laws will be substan­tially facilitated or improved thereby. The apportionment of costs may be regulated by a federal law.

(5) The procedures to be followed by federal revenue authorities shall be prescribed by a federal law. The procedures to be followed by Land revenue authorities or, as provided by the second sentence of paragraph (4) of this Article, by mu­nicipalities (associations of municipalities) may be prescribed by a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat.

(6) Financial jurisdiction shall be uniformly regulated by a federal law.
(7) The Federal Government may issue general administrative rules which, to the extent that administration is entrusted to Land revenue authorities or to municipalities (associa­tions of municipalities), shall require the consent of the Bundesrat.


Article 109[Budget management in the Federation and the Länder]

(1) The Federation and the Länder shall be autonomous and independent of one another in the management of their respective budgets.

(2) The Federation and the Länder shall jointly discharge the obligations of the Federal Republic of Germany resulting from legal acts of the European Community for the main­tenance of budgetary discipline pursuant to Article 104 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community and shall, within this framework, give due regard to the requirements of overall economic equilibrium.

(3) The budgets of the Federation and the Länder shall, in principle, be balanced without revenue from credits. The Federation and Länder may introduce rules intended to take into account, symmetrically in times of upswing and downswing, the effects of market developments that deviate from normal conditions, as well as exceptions for natural disasters or unusual emergency situations beyond governmental control and substantially harmful to the state’s financial capacity. For such exceptional regimes, a corresponding amortisation plan must be adopted. Details for the budget of the Federation shall be governed by Article 115 with the proviso that the first sentence shall be deemed to be satisfied if revenue from credits does not exceed 0.35 per cent in relation to the nominal gross domestic product. The Länder themselves shall regulate details for the budgets within the framework of their con­stitutional powers, the proviso being that the first sentence shall only be deemed to be satisfied if no revenue from credits is admitted.

(4) A federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat may establish principles applicable to both the Federation and the Länder governing budgetary law, cyclically appro­priate budgetary management and long-term financial planning.

(5) Sanctions imposed by the European Community on the ba­sis of the provisions of Article 104 of the Treaty Establish­ing the European Community in the interest of maintaining budgetary discipline shall be borne by the Federation and the Länder at a ratio of 65 to 35 per cent. In solidarity, the Länder as a whole shall bear 35 per cent of the charges incumbent on the Länder according to the number of their inhabitants; 65 per cent of the charges incumbent on the Länder shall be borne by the Länder according to their degree of causation. Details shall be regulated by a federal law which shall require the consent of the Bundesrat.


Article 109a [Budgetary emergencies]

(1) To avoid a budgetary emergency, a federal law requiring the consent of the Bundesrat shall provide for:

1. the continuing supervision of budgetary management of the Federation and the Länder by a joint body (Stability Council),

2. the conditions and procedures for ascertaining the threat of a budgetary emergency,

3. the principles for the establishment and administration of programs for taking care of budgetary emergencies.

(2) From the year 2020, oversight of compliance with the provisions of paragraph (3) of Article 109 by the Federation and the Länder shall be entrusted to the Stability Council. This oversight shall be focused on the provisions and pro­cedures regarding adherence to budgetary discipline from legal acts based on the Treaty on the Functioning of the European Union.
(3) The decisions of the Stability Council and the accompany­ing documents shall be published.


Article 110[Federal budget]

(1) All revenues and expenditures of the Federation shall be included in the budget; in the case of federal enterprises and special trusts, only payments to or remittances from them need be included. The budget shall be balanced with respect to revenues and expenditures.

(2) The budget for one or more fiscal years shall be set forth in a law enacted before the beginning of the first year and making separate provision for each year. The law may provide that various parts of the budget apply to different periods of time, divided by fiscal years.

(3) Bills to comply with the first sentence of paragraph (2) of this Article as well as bills to amend the Budget Act or the budget itself shall be submitted simultaneously to the Bun­desrat and to the Bundestag; the Bundesrat shall be entitled to comment on such bills within six weeks or, in the case of amending bills, within three weeks.

(4) The Budget Act may contain only such provisions as relate to federal revenues and expenditures and to the period for which it is enacted. The Budget Act may specify that its provisions shall expire only upon promulgation of the next Budget Act or, in the event of an authorisation pursuant to Article 115, at a later date.


Article 111[Interim budget management]

(1) If, by the end of a fiscal year, the budget for the following year has not been adopted by a law, the Federal Govern­ment, until such law comes into force, may make all expenditures that are necessary:

(a) to maintain institutions established by a law and to carry out measures authorised by a law;

(b) to meet the legal obligations of the Federation;

(c) to continue construction projects, procurements and the provision of other benefits or services or to continue to make grants for these purposes, to the extent that amounts have already been appropriated in the budget of a previous year.

(2) To the extent that revenues based upon specific laws and derived from taxes or duties or other sources or the working capital reserves do not cover the expenditures referred to in paragraph (1) of this Article, the Federal Government may borrow the funds necessary to sustain current operations up to a maximum of one quarter of the total amount of the previous budget.


Article 112[Extrabudgetary expenditures]

Expenditures in excess of budgetary appropriations or for purposes not contemplated by the budget shall require the consent of the Federal Minister of Finance. Such consent may be given only in the event of an unforeseen and unavoidable necessity. Details may be regulated by a federal law.

Article 113[Increase of expenditures]

(1) Laws that increase the budget expenditures proposed by the Federal Government or entail or will bring about new expenditures shall require the consent of the Federal Government. This requirement shall also apply to laws that entail or will bring about decreases in revenue. The Federal Government may demand that the Bundestag postpone its vote on bills to this effect. In this event the Federal Govern­ment shall submit its comments to the Bundestag within six weeks.

(2) Within four weeks after the Bundestag has adopted such a law, the Federal Government may demand that it vote on the law a second time.

(3) If the bill has become law pursuant to Article 78, the Federal Government may withhold its consent only within six weeks and only after having initiated the procedure pro­vided for in the third and fourth sentences of paragraph (1) or in paragraph (2) of this Article. Upon the expiry of this period such consent shall be deemed to have been given.


Article 114[Submission and auditing of accounts]

(1) For the purpose of discharging the Federal Government, the Federal Minister of Finance shall submit annually to the Bundestag and to the Bundesrat an account for the preced­ing fiscal year of all revenues and expenditures as well as of assets and debts.

(2) The Federal Court of Audit, whose members shall enjoy judicial independence, shall audit the account and deter­mine whether public finances have been properly and efficiently administered by the Federation. For the purpose of the audit pursuant to the first sentence of this paragraph, the Federal Court of Audit may also conduct surveys of authorities outside the federal administration; this shall also apply in cases in which the Federation allocates to the Länder ring-fenced financing for the performance of tasks incumbent on the Länder. It shall submit an annual report directly to the Bundestag and the Bundesrat as well as to the Federal Government. In other respects the powers of the Federal Court of Audit shall be regulated by a federal law.


Article 115[Limits of borrowing]

(1) The borrowing of funds and the assumption of surety obligations, guarantees or other commitments that may lead to expenditures in future fiscal years shall require authorisation by a federal law specifying or permitting computation of the amounts involved.

(2) Revenues and expenditures shall in principle be balanced without revenue from credits. This principle shall be satisfied when revenue obtained by the borrowing of funds does not exceed 0.35 per cent in relation to the nominal gross domestic product. In addition, when economic developments deviate from normal conditions, effects on the budget in periods of upswing and downswing must be taken into account symmetrically. Deviations of actual borrowing from the credit limits specified under the first to third sentences are to be recorded on a control account; debits exceeding the threshold of 1.5 per cent in relation to the nominal gross domestic product are to be reduced in accordance with the economic cycle. The regulation of details, especially the adjustment of revenue and ex­penditures with regard to financial transactions and the procedure for the calculation of the yearly limit on net borrowing, taking into account the economic cycle on the basis of a procedure for adjusting the cycle together with the control and balancing of deviations of actual borrow­ing from the credit limit, requires a federal law. In cases of natural catastrophes or unusual emergency situations beyond governmental control and substantially harmful to the state’s financial capacity, these credit limits may be exceeded on the basis of a decision taken by a majority of the Members of the Bundestag. The decision must be combined with an amortisation plan. Repayment of the credits borrowed under the sixth sentence must be accom­plished within an appropriate period of time.



Basic Law of Germany

Preamble
Basic Rights
Federation and the Lander
Bundestag
Bundesrat
Joint Committee
Composition Rules of procedure
Federal President
Federal Government
Federal Legislation
Execution of Federal Laws
Joint Tasks
Judiciary
Finance
State of Defence
Transitional and Concluding Provisions
Constitution Germany Finance 2022


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