President and Vice President

President and Vice President

- Constitution of India

President and Vice President

Chapter I The Executive
 

Article 52 The President of India
There shall be a President of India.

Article 53 Executive power of the Union

(1) The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President and shall be exercised by him either directly or through officers subordinate to him in accordance with this Constitution.
(2) Without prejudice to the generality of the foregoing provision, the supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union Shall be vested in the President and the exercise thereof shall be regulated by law.
(3) Nothing in this article shall -
(a) be deemed to transfer to the President any functions conferred by any existing law on the Government of any State or other authority; or
(b) prevent Parliament from conferring by law functions on authorities other than the President.

Article 54 Election of President
The President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of -
(a) the elected members of both Houses of Parliament; and
(b) the elected members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States. Explanation: In this article and in article 55 , "State" includes the National Capital Territory of Delhi and the Union territory of Pondicherry.

Article 55 Manner of election of President

(1) As far as practicable, there shall be uniformity in the scale of representation of the different States at the election of the President.
(2) For the purpose of securing such uniformity among the States inter se as well as parity between the States as a whole and the Union, the number of votes which each elected member of Parliament and of the legislative Assembly of each state is entitled to cast at such election shall be determined in the following manner; -
(a) every elected member of the Legislative Assembly of a State shall have as many votes as there are multiples of one thousand in the quotient obtained by dividing the population of the State by the total number of the elected members of the Assembly;
(b) if, after taking the said multiples of one thousand, the remainder is not less than five hundred, then the vote of each member referred to in sub-clause (a) shall be further increased by one;
(c) each elected member of either House of Parliament shall have such number of votes as may be obtained by dividing the total number of votes assigned to the members of the Legislative Assemblies of the States under sub-clauses (a) and (b) by the total number of the elected members of both Houses of Parliament, fractions exceeding one-half being counted as one and other fractions being disregarded.
(3) The election of the President shall be held in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of the single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.
Explanation: In this article, the expression "population" means the population as ascertained at the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published:
Provided that the reference in this Explanation to the last preceding census of which the relevant figures have been published shall, until the relevant figures for the first census taken after the year 2000 have been published, be construed as a reference to the 1971 census.

Article 56 Term of office of President

(1) The President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:
Provided that - (a) the President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the Vide-President, resign his office;
(b) the President may, for violation of the Constitution, be removed from office by impeachment in the manner provided in article 61 .
(c) the President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.
(2) Any resignation addressed to the Vice-President under clause (a) of the proviso to clause (1) shall forthwith be communicated by him to the Speaker of the House of the People.

Article 57 Eligibility for re-election
A person who holds, or who has held, office as President shall, subject to the other provisions of this Constitution be eligible for re-election to that office.

Article 58 Qualifications for election as President

(1) No person shall be eligible for election as President unless he -
(a) is a citizen of India;
(b) has completed the age of thirty-five years, and
(c) is qualified for election as a member of the House of the People.
(2) A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.
Explanation: For the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the President or Vice-President of the Union or the Governor of any State or is a Minister either for the Union or for any State.

Article 59 Conditions of President's office

(1) The President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as President.
(2) The President shall not hold any other office of profit.
(3) The President shall be entitled without payment of rent to the use of his official residences and shall be also entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges as may be determined by Parliament by law and until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.
(4) The emoluments and allowances of the President shall not be diminished during his term of office.

Article 60 Oath or affirmation by the President
Every President and every person acting as President or discharging the functions of the President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe in the presence of the Chief Justice of India or, in his absence, the senior most Judge of the Supreme Court available, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say - "I, A.B., do swear in the name of God / solemnly affirm that I will faithfully execute the office of President (or discharge the function of the President) of India and will to the best of my ability preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law and that I will devote myself to the service and well-being of the people of India."

Article 61 Procedure for impeachment of the President

(1) When a President is to be impeached for violation of the Constitution, the charge shall be preferred by either House of Parliament.
(2) No such charge shall be preferred unless -
(a) the proposal to prefer such charge is contained in a resolution which has been moved after at least fourteen days' notice in writing signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of members of the House has been given of their intention to move the resolution, and
(b) such resolution has been passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House.
(3) When a charge has been so preferred by either House of Parliament, the other House shall investigate the charge or cause the charge to be investigated and the President shall have the right to appear and to be represented at such investigation.
(4) If as a result of the investigation a resolution is passed by a majority of not less than two-thirds of the total membership of the House by which the charge was investigated or caused to be investigated, declaring that the charge preferred against the President has been sustained, such resolution shall have the effect of removing the President from his office as from the date on which the resolution is so passed.

Article 62 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of resident and the term of office or person elected to fill casual vacancy

(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.
(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of President occurring by reason of his death, regsignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after, and in no case later than six months from, the date of occurrence of the vacancy; and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 56 , be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office.

Article 63 The Vice-President Of India
There shall be a Vice-President of India.

Article 64 The Vice-President to be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States
The Vice-President shall be ex-officio Chairman of the Council of States and shall not hold any other office of profit: Provided that during any period when the Vice-President acts as President or discharges the functions of the President under article 65 , he shall not perform the duties of the office of Chairman of the Council of States and shall not be entitled to any salary or allowance payable to the Chairman of the Council of States under article 97 .

Article 65 The Vice-President to act as President or to discharge his functions during casual vacancies in the office, or during the absence, of President

(1) In the event of the occurrence of any vacancy in the office of the President by reason of this death, resignation or removal, or otherwise, the Vice-President shall act as President until the date on which a new President elected in accordance with the provisions of this Chapter to fill such vacancy enters upon his office.
(2) When the President is unable to discharge his functions owing to absence, illness or any other cause, the Vice-President shall discharge his functions until the date on which the President resumes his duties.
(3) The Vice-President shall, during, and in respect of, the period while he is so acting as, or discharging the functions of, President have all the powers and immunities of the President and be entitled to such emoluments, allowances and privileges
as may be determined by Parliament by law and, until provision in that behalf is so made, such emoluments, allowances and privileges as are specified in the Second Schedule.

Article 66 Election of Vice-President

(1) The Vice-President shall be elected by the members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of proportional representation by means of a single transferable vote and the voting at such election shall be by secret ballot.
(2) The Vice-President shall not be a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State, and if a member of either House of Parliament or of a House of the Legislature of any State be elected Vice-President, he shall be deemed to have vacated his seat in that House on the date on which he enters upon his office as Vice-President.
(3) No person shall be eligible for election as Vice-President unless he -
(a) is a citizen on India;
(b) has completed the age of thirty-five years; and
(c) is qualified for election as a member of the Council of States.
(4) A person shall not be eligible for election as Vice-President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.
Explanation: For the purposes of this article, a person shall not be deemed to hold any office of profit by reason only that he is the President of Vice-President of the Union or the Governor of any State or is a Minister either for the Union or for any State.

Article 67 Term of office of Vice-President
The Vice-President shall hold office for a term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office:
Provided that - (a) A Vice-President may, by writing under his hand addressed to the President, resign his office;
(b) a Vice-President may be removed from his office by a resolution of the Council of States passed by a majority of all the then members of the Council and agreed to by the House of the People; but no resolution for the purpose of this clause shall be moved unless at least fourteen days' notice has been given of the intention to move the resolution;
(c) A Vice-President shall, notwithstanding the expiration of his term, continue to hold office until his successor enters upon his office.

Article 68 Time of holding election to fill vacancy in the office of Vice-President and the term of office of person elected to fill casual vacancy

(1) An election to fill a vacancy caused by the expiration of the term of office of Vice-President shall be completed before the expiration of the term.
(2) An election to fill a vacancy in the office of Vice-President occurring by reason of his death, resignation or removal, or otherwise shall be held as soon as possible after the occurrence of the vacancy, and the person elected to fill the vacancy shall, subject to the provisions of article 67 , be entitled to hold office for the full term of five years from the date on which he enters upon his office.

Article 69 Oath or affirmation by the Vice-President
Every Vice-President shall, before entering upon his office, make and subscribe before the President, or some person appointed in that behalf by him, an oath or affirmation in the following form, that is to say - "I, A.B., do swear in the name of God /solemnly affirm that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the Constitution of India as by law established and that I will discharge the duty upon which I am about to enter."

Article 70 Discharge of President's functions in other contingencies
Parliament may make such provision as it thinks fit for the discharge of the functions of the President in any contingency not provided for in this Chapter.

Article 71 Matters relating to, or connected with, the election of a President or Vice-President

(1) All doubts and disputes arising out of or in connection with the election of a President or Vice-President shall be inquired into and decided by the Supreme Court whose decision shall be final.
(2) If the election of a person as President or Vice-President is declared void by the Supreme Court, acts done by him in the exercise and performance of the powers and duties of the office of President or Vice-President, as the case may be, on or before the date of the decision of the Supreme Court shall not be invalidated by reason of that declaration.
(3) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, Parliament may by law regulate any matter relating to or connected with the election of a President or Vice-President.
(4) The election of a person as President or Vice-President shall not be called in question on the ground of the existence of any vacancy for whatever reason among the members of the electoral college electing him.

Article 72 Power of President to grant pardons, etc., and to suspend, remit or commute sentences in certain cases

(1) The President shall have the power to grant pardons, reprieves, respites or remissions of punishment or to suspend, remit or commute the sentence of any persons convicted of any offence - (a) in all cases where the punishment of sentence is by a Court Martial;
(b) in all cases where the punishment or sentence is for an offence against any law relating to a matter to which the executive power of the Union extends;
(c) in all cases where the sentence is a sentence of death.
(2) Nothing in sub-clause (a) of clause (1) shall affect the power conferred by law on any officer of the Armed Forces of the Union to suspend, remit or commute a sentence passed by a Court martial.
(3) Nothing in sub-clause (c) of clause (1) shall affect the power to suspend, remit or commute a sentence of death exercisable by the Governor of a State under any law for the time being in force.

Article 73 Extent of executive power of the Union

(1) Subject to the provisions of this Constitution, the executive power of the Union shall extend -
(a) to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws; and
(b) to the exercise of such rights, authority and jurisdiction as are exercisable by the Government of India by virtue of any treaty of agreement:
Provided that the executive power referred to in sub-clause (a) shall not, save as expressly provided in this Constitution or in any law made by Parliament, extend in any State to matters with respect to which the Legislature of the State has also power to make laws.
(2) Until otherwise provided by Parliament, a State and any officer or authority of a State may, notwithstanding anything in this article, continue to exercise in matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws for that State such executive power or functions as the State or officer or authority thereof could exercise immediately before the commencement of this Constitution.


Constitution of India

Preamble
Union and its Territory
Citizenship
Fundamental Rights
General Fundamental Rights
Right to Equality
Right to Freedom
Right against Exploitation
Right to Freedom of Religion
Cultural and Educational Rights
Saving of Certain Laws
Right to Constitutional Remedies
Directive Principles Of State Policy
Fundamental Duties
Union
Executive
President and Vice President
Council of Ministers
Attorney General for India
Conduct of Government Business
Parliament
General Parliament
Officers of Parliament
Conduct of Business
Disqualifications of Members
Parliament and its Members
Legislative Procedure
Procedure in Financial Matters
Procedure Generally
Legislative Powers of the President
Union Judiciary
Comptroller and Auditor General of India
General The States
Governor
Advocate General for the State
State Legislature
General State Legislature
Officers of the State Legislature
Powers Privileges and Immunities
Legislative Power of The Governor
High Courts in the States
Subordinate Courts
States in Part B of the First Schedule
Union Territories
Panchayats
Municipalities
Scheduled and Tribal Areas
Relations Between The Union and the States
Legislative Relations
Administrative Relations
General Administrative Relations
Disputes relating to Waters
Co ordination between States
Finance Property Contracts and Suits
Finance
General Finance
Distribution of Revenues
Miscellaneous Financial Provisions
Borrowing
Property Contracts Rights and Suits
Right to Property
Trade Commerce and Intercourse Within the Territory
Services Under the Union and the States
Services
Public Service Commissions
Tribunals
Elections
Special Provisions Relating to Certain Classes
Official Language
Language of the Union
Regional Languages
Language of the Supreme Court
Special Directives
Emergency Provisions
Miscellaneous
Amendment of the Constitution
Temporary Transitional and Special Provisions
Short Title Commencement Authoritative
First Schedule
Second Schedule
Second Schedule Part A
Second Schedule Part B
Second Schedule Part C
Second Schedule Part D
Second Schedule Part E
Third Schedule
Fourth Schedule
Fifth Schedule
Fifth Schedule Part A
Fifth Schedule Part B
Fifth Schedule Part C
Fifth Schedule Part D
Sixth Schedule
Seventh Schedule
Eighth Schedule
Ninth Schedule
Tenth Schedule
Eleventh Schedule
Twelfth Schedule
Appendix I
Appendix II
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