Protection From Deprivation Of Property

Protection From Deprivation Of Property

PROTECTION FROM DEPRIVATION OF PROPERTY

9.- 1. No property of any description shall be compulsorily taken possession of, and no interest in or right to or over property of any description shall be compulsorily acquired, except for public use and except in accordance with the provisions of a law applicable to that taking of possession or acquisition and for the payment of fair compensation within a reasonable time.

2. Every person having a interest in or right to or over property which is compulsorily taken possession of or whose interest in or right to or over any property is compulsorily acquired shall have the right of access to the High Court for-

a. the determination of his interest or right, the legality of the taking of possession or acquisition of the property, interest or right and the amount of any compensation to which he is entitled; and

b. the purpose of obtaining payment of that compensation:

Provided that if Parliament so provides in relation to any matter referred to in paragraph (a) of this subsection the right of access shall be by way of appeal (exercisable as of right at the instance of the person having the interest in or right to or over the property) from a tribunal or authority, other than the High Court, having jurisdiction under any law to determine that matter.

3. The Chief Justice may make rules with respect to the practice and procedure of the High Court or any other tribunal or authority in relation to the jurisdiction conferred on the High Court by subsection (2) of this section or exercisable by the other tribunal or authority for the purposes of that subsection (including rules with respect to the time within which application or appeals to the High Court or applications to the other tribunals or authority may be brought).

4. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of subsection (1) of this section-

a. to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of any property, interest or right-

i. in satisfaction of any tax, rate or due;

ii. by way of penalty for breach of the law or forfeiture in consequence of breach of the law;

iii. as an incident of a lease, tenancy, mortgage, charge, bill of sale, pledge or contract;

iv. in the execution of judgments or orders of a court in proceedings for the determination of civil rights or obligations;

v. in circumstances where it is reasonably necessary so to do because the property is in a dangerous state or likely to be injurious to the health of human beings, animals or plants;

vi. in consequence of any law with respect to the limitation of actions;

vii. for so long as may be necessary for the purposes of any examination, investigation, trial or enquiry or, in the case of land, for the purposes of the carrying out thereon of work of soil conservation or the conservation of other natural resources or work relation to agricultural development or improvement (being work relating to such development or improvement that the owner or occupier of the land has been required, and has without reasonable excuse refused or failed, to carry out),

and except so far as the provision or, as the case may be, the thing done under the authority thereof is shown not to be reasonably justifiable in a democratic society;

b. to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the taking of possession or acquisition of any of the following property (including and interest in or right to or over property), that is to say-

i. enemy property;

ii. property of a deceased person, a person of unsound mind or a person who had not attained the age of eighteen years, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the persons entitled to the beneficial interest therein;

iii. the property of a person adjudged bankrupt or a body corporate in liquidation, for the purpose of its administration for the benefit of the creditors of the bankrupt or body corporate and, subject thereto, for the benefit of other persons entitled to the beneficial interest in the property; or

iv. property subject to a trust, for the purpose of vesting the property in persons appointed as trustees under the instrument creating the trust or by a court or by order of a court for the purposes of giving effect to the trust.

5. Nothing contained in or done under the authority of any law enacted by Parliament shall be held to be inconsistent with or in contravention of this section to the extent that the law in question makes provision for the compulsory taking of possession of any property, or the compulsory acquisition of any interest in or right or over property, where that property, interest or right is held by a body corporate established by law for public purposes in which no monies have been invested other than monies provided by Parliament or any legislature established for the former colony or Associated State of Antigua.

6. For the purposes of this section, "use" is "public" if it is intended to result or results in a benefit or advantage to the public and, without prejudice to its generality, includes any use affecting the physical, economic, social or aesthetic well-being of the public.

Constitution of Antigua

1. The State and its Territory
2. Constitution is Supreme Law
3. Fundamental Rights and Freedoms of the Individual
4. Protection of Right to Life
5. Protection of Right to Personal Liberty
6. Protection from Slavery and Forced Labour
7. Protection from Inhuman Treatment
8. Protection of Freedom of Movement
9. Protection from Deprivation of Property
10. Protection of Person Or Property from Arbitrary Search Or Entry
11. Protection of Freedom of Conscience
12. Protection of Freedom of Expression Including Freedom of the Press
13. Protection of Freedom of Assembly And Association
14. Protection from Discrimination On the Grounds of Race, Sex Etc.
15. Provision to Secure Protection of the Law
16. Derogations from Fundamental Rights And Freedoms Under Emergency Powers
17. Protection of Persons Detained-under Emergency Laws
18. Enforcement of Protective Provisions
19. Protection from Derogations from Fundamental Rights and Freedoms Generally
20. Declaration of Public Emergency
21. Interpretation and Savings
22. Establishment Of Office
23. Acting Governor-general
24. Oaths
25. Deputy to Governor-General
26. Public Seal
27. Establishment of Parliament
28. Composition of the Senate
29. Qualifications for Appointment as Senators
30. Disqualifications from Appointment as Senators
31. Tenure of Office of Senators
32. Appointment of Temporary Senators
33. President and Vice-president
34. Attendance of Attorney-general at Proceedings of Senate
35. Attendance at Proceedings of Senate of Ministers who are Members of the House
36. Composition of the House
37. Attendance at Proceedings of the House of Ministers who are Senators
38. Qualifications for Election as a Member of the House
39. Disqualifications from Election as a Member of the House
40. Election of Members of the House
41. Tenure of Seats of Members of the House
42. Speaker and Deputy Speaker
43. Clerks to Houses of Parliament and their Staffs
44. Determination of Questions of Membership
45. Unqualified Persons Sitting or Voting
46. Power to Make Laws
47. Alternation of this Constitution and Supreme Court Order
48. Oath of Allegiance by Members of Parliament
49. Presiding in Senate and House
50. Quorum
51. Voting
52. Mode of Exercising Legislative Power
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