Court

Court

Court

Court

- Constitution of Estonia

CHAPTER XIII. The Court

Article 146. Judgments are passed by the court only. The court functions independently and adjudicates in accordance with the constitution and the laws.
Article 147. Judges will be appointed for life. The reasons and the procedure for dismissing a judge will be established by law. A judge can be relieved of his duties only by a decision of the court. Judges should not hold any other elected or appointed position, except in cases specified by law. The guarantees for a judge's independence and his or her legal status will be determined by law.
Article 148. The judicial system consists of: (1) rural and city courts and municipal courts; (2) district courts; (3) the state court. The formation of courts for certain types of cases is established by law. The formation of special-purpose courts is prohibited.
Article 149. The rural and city courts and municipal courts are the courts of the first level. District courts are courts of the second level and they review, through a system of appeals, the decisions reached on the first level. The State Court is the highest court of the state that reviews court decisions on appeal. The State Court also serves as the court of constitutional supervision. The organization for courts and procedures for court investigations are established by law.
Article 150. The chairman of the State Court is appointed by the State Assembly on the recommendation of the President of the Republic. Members of the State Court are appointed by the State Assembly on the recommendation of the chairman of the State Court. Other judges are appointed by the President of the Republic on the recommendation of the State Court.
Article 151. Procedures for the supervision of representation, defense, state action, and legality of court investigations will be established by law.
Article 152. The court will, in the course of its proceedings, refrain from applying any law or legal measure if that is in conflict with the constitution. The State Court will declare void any law or other legal measure if it is in conflict with either the provisions or the principles of the constitution.
Article 153. A judge can be held criminally liable only at the request of the State Court, with the consent of the President of the Republic. The chairman and the members of the State Court can be held criminally liable only on a motion from the chancellor of justice, with the majority of membership consent of the State Assembly.
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