Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights

Civil and political rights

- Constitution of Egypt

Chapter 2: Civil and political rights

Article 43: Freedom of belief

The freedom of belief is inviolable.

The state guarantees the freedom to practice religious rites and to establish placesof worship for the divine religions. This is as organized by law.

Article 44: Blasphemy

Defaming all religious messengers and prophets is prohibited.

Article 45: Freedom of thought and opinion

The freedom of thought and opinion is guaranteed.

Every individual has the right to express an opinion and to disseminate it verbally, inwriting or illustration, or by any other means of publication and expression.

Article 46: Freedom of creativity

Freedom of creativity in its various forms is the right of every citizen.

The state advances science, the arts and literature. The state sponsors creators andinventors, protects their creations and innovations, and works to apply them for thebenefit of society.

The state takes the necessary measures to preserve the nation’s cultural heritage.The state works to promote cultural services.

Article 47: Access to information

Access to information, data, statistics and documents, its disclosure and circulation,is a right guaranteed by the state to all citizens, on the condition that this does notviolate the sanctity of private life or the rights of others, and that it does not conflictwith national security.

The law organizes the rules for filing and archiving public documents, the means toaccess information, appeals against a refusal to disclose information, and theconsequent accountability for refusing to disclose information.

Article 48: Freedom of the press

The freedom of the press, printing, publication and mass media is guaranteed. Themedia is free and independent to serve society and to express various trends inpublic opinion, and contribute to shaping and directing public opinion in the contextof the state and society’s main components, and in the context of the preservation ofrights, freedoms and public duties, of the respect for the sanctity of the private livesof citizens and the requirements of national security. The closure, prohibition orconfiscation of media outlets is prohibited except with a court order.

It is prohibited to monitor whatever media outlets publish. An exception is permittedin the case of limited censorship that may be imposed in times of war or publicmobilization.

Article 49: Freedom to own and establish newspapers

Freedom to publish and own newspapers of all kinds is guaranteed subject tonotification for every natural or moral Egyptian person.

The law organizes the establishment of radio stations, television broadcasting anddigital media.

Article 50: Freedom of assembly

Citizens have the right to organize public meetings, processions and peacefuldemonstrations. They must be unarmed and must provide notification as regulatedby law.

The right to private assembly is guaranteed without the need to provide notification.Security personnel may not attend or intercept such private meetings.

Article 51: Right to establish associations

Citizens have the right to establish associations and civil institutions, subject tonotification. Such institutions operate freely, and have legal personality.

The authorities may not disband them or their administrative bodies without a courtorder, in the manner prescribed by law.

Article 52: Right to form syndicates

The right to form syndicates, unions and cooperatives is guaranteed. They have legalpersonality, be formed on a democratic basis, operate freely, participate in theservice of the community, and in raising the standard of efficiency among theirmembers, and defending their rights.

Authorities may not disband them or their boards other than based on a court order.

Article 53: Trade unions

The law organizes professional trade unions, their management on a democraticbasis, determines its assets, and the manner in which its members are to be heldaccountable for their conduct, which should be in accordance with professionalcodes of ethics. One trade union is allowed per profession.

Authorities may not disband the boards of trade unions except with a court order,and may not place them under sequestration.

Article 54: Right to address public authorities

Every individual has the right to address public authorities in writing and under hisown signature.

Addressing public authorities should not be in the name of groups, with theexception of legal persons.

Article 55: Citizen participation in public life

Citizen participation in public life is a national duty. Every citizen has the right tovote, run for elections, and express opinions in referendums. The law organizes thedirect application of these rights.

The state is responsible for the inclusion of the name of every citizen who satisfiesthe conditions to vote in a voters’ registry and must do so automatically.

The state ensures the validity, impartiality and integrity of referendums andelections. Interference in any of the foregoing is a crime punishable by law.

Article 56: Egyptians living abroad

The state safeguards the interests of Egyptians living abroad, protects them andprotects their rights and freedoms, assists them perform their public duties towardthe Egyptian state and society, and encourages their contribution to thedevelopment of the nation.

Their participation in elections and referendums is organized by law.

Article 57: Asylum

The state grants asylum to foreigners who are deprived in their country of the publicrights and freedoms that are guaranteed by this Constitution.

Extradition of political refugees is prohibited.

All of the foregoing is in accordance with what the law organizes.


Preamble
State and Society
Political Principles
Social and Ethical Principles
Economic Principles
Rights and Freedoms
Personal Rights
Moral and Political Rights
Economic and Social Rights
Guarantees for the Protection of Rights and Freedoms
Public Authorities
Legislative Authority
Common provisions
Council of Representatives
Shura Council
Executive Authority
President
Cabinet
Judicial Authority
General Provisions
Judiciary and Public Prosecution
State Council
Supreme Constitutional Court
Judicial Bodies
The legal profession
The experts
Local Administration
Local Administrative Division of the State
Local Councils
National Security and Defense
National Security Council
Armed Forces
National Defense Council
Military Judiciary
Police
Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies
Regulatory Agencies
National Anti Corruption Commission
Central Auditing Organization
Central Bank
Economic and Social Council
National Electoral Commission
Independent bodies
Supreme Authority for Endowment Affairs
Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation
National Council for Education and Scientific Research
Independent Press and Media Organizations
Final And Transitional Provisions
Amendments to the Constitution
Transitional Provisions
Constitution Civil And Political Rights 2023
Op-Ed: 2022 ends with democracy in a global crisis The Center Square
Human Rights Watch Amicus Brief in Moore v. Harper Human Rights Watch
Human Rights Death Penalty Information Center
NCHR moved to stop Afghan refugees' deportation The Express Tribune