- Constitution of Egypt


We, the people of Egypt,

In the name and with the assistance of God, the most merciful and gracious,

This is our Constitution, the document of the January 25 Revolution, the Revolutionwhich was initiated by our youth, which our people rallied around, and which theArmed Forces sided with.

After we rejected, in Tahrir Square and across the country, all forms of injustice,oppression, tyranny, despotism, exclusion, plunder, corruption and monopoly.

We publicly demanded our full rights to “a decent life, freedom, social justice andhuman dignity”, with the blood of our martyrs, the pain of our injured, the dreams ofour children and the struggle of our men and women.

We reclaimed the place of our great civilization and of our thriving history; weestablished the oldest state on the banks of the immortal Nile, which witnessed themeaning of citizenship, equality and non-discrimination. It presented to the worldthe first written alphabets, launched the belief in monotheism and cognizance of theCreator, embraced the God’s prophets and His divine Messages, and decorated thepages of human history with creativity.

In continuation of our immaculate revolution which united the Egyptian people overone demand, to build a modern democratic state, we announce our determinationtowards the following principles:

1.The people are the source of all authorities; they establish them, theyderive their legitimacy from them and are subject to their will. Theresponsibilities and competencies of the authorities are endowed to themin trusteeship, and are not privileges that serve to immunize authorities.

2.A democratic system of government which entrenches the peacefultransfer of power, deepens political and partisan pluralism, and guaranteesfair elections and the people’s contribution to the decision-making process.
3.The dignity of the individual is part and parcel of the dignity of thehomeland. And a country in which women are not respected has no dignity;for women are the sisters of men and partners in national gains andresponsibilities.

4.Freedom is a right, in thought, creativity, opinion, housing, ownership,residence and travel, the origins of which the Creator designed in theuniverse’s motion and human nature.

5.Equality and equal opportunities are for all: male and female citizens; forthere is no discrimination, nepotism, or favoritism in rights and duties.

6.The rule of law is the basis of the individual’s freedom, the legitimacy of theauthorities, and the State’s compliance with the law; for no voice tops thatof the force of justice; and the judiciary is independent and proud and holdsthe supreme mission of protecting the Constitution, establishing thebalance of justice, and preserving rights and freedoms.

7.National unity is an obligation, and the cornerstone for building theEgyptian modern State and its soaring progress and development. It isentrenched in the values of tolerance, moderation and centrism, and theguarantee of rights and freedoms to all citizens without discriminationbetween the people.
8.Defending the homeland is a duty and an honor; and our armed forces are apatriotic, professional and neutral institution that do not interfere inpolitical affairs and is the protective shield of the country.

.Security is a great blessing watched over by the police that work to serveand protect the people and enforce justice; for there can be no justicewithout protection, and no protection without security institutions whichrespect human dignity and the rule of law.

9.Security is a great blessing watched over by the police that work to serveand protect the people and enforce justice; for there can be no justicewithout protection, and no protection without security institutions whichrespect human dignity and the rule of law.
10.Unity is the hope of the Arab nation, a call from history, an invitation to thefuture, and a necessity for destiny. It is reinforced by complementarity andbrotherhood with the countries of the Nile Basin and of the Muslim world, anatural extension to the genius of Egypt’s position and place on theuniverse’s map.

11.Egypt’s pioneering intellectual and cultural role is an embodiment of its softpower and an example of the freedom of its innovators, intellectuals,universities, scholarly and linguistic academies, research centers, press, art,literature, media, its patriotic Church and its honorable Al-Azhar, whichthroughout its history has been the backbone of the homeland’s identity, aguardian of the immortal Arabic language and the revered Islamic Sharia,and a beacon for moderate enlightened thought.

We, the masses of the people of Egypt,

out of faith in God and His heavenly messages,

in recognition of the rights of the country and the nation due upon us,

in awareness of our national and human responsibilities,

pledge to commit to the principles laid out in this Constitution, which we accept andgrant to ourselves, affirming our determination to uphold and defend it, protect andrespect it by all state authorities.

State and Society
Political Principles
Social and Ethical Principles
Economic Principles
Rights and Freedoms
Personal Rights
Moral and Political Rights
Economic and Social Rights
Guarantees for the Protection of Rights and Freedoms
Public Authorities
Legislative Authority
Common provisions
Council of Representatives
Shura Council
Executive Authority
Judicial Authority
General Provisions
Judiciary and Public Prosecution
State Council
Supreme Constitutional Court
Judicial Bodies
The legal profession
The experts
Local Administration
Local Administrative Division of the State
Local Councils
National Security and Defense
National Security Council
Armed Forces
National Defense Council
Military Judiciary
Independent Bodies and Regulatory Agencies
Regulatory Agencies
National Anti Corruption Commission
Central Auditing Organization
Central Bank
Economic and Social Council
National Electoral Commission
Independent bodies
Supreme Authority for Endowment Affairs
Supreme Authority for Heritage Conservation
National Council for Education and Scientific Research
Independent Press and Media Organizations
Final And Transitional Provisions
Amendments to the Constitution
Transitional Provisions
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